Flashcards › Western Civ 102 Mid-term Study Guide

although an innovative phase in western thinking, it was based upon the intellectual and scientific accomplishments of previous centuries the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century the origins of the Scientific Revolution can be traced to: the work of a very small number of great European intellectuals All of the following are considered possible influences and causes of the Scientific Revolution -mathematical and naturalistic skills of Renaissance artists - the Hermetic belief in magic and alchemy -the humanists' rediscovery of Greek mathematicians and thinkers Which ancient authorities was not relied on by medieval scholars? Galileo According to Leonardo da Vinci, what subject was the key to understanding the nature of things? mathematics Scholars devoted to Hermeticism believed: They saw the world as a living embodiment of divinity where humans could use mathematics and magic to dominate nature The general conception of the universe before Copernicus was The earth was the stationary center and heavenly spheres orbited it The greatest achievements in science during the 16th and 17th centuries came in what three areas? astronomy, mechanics, and medicine the Ptolemaic conception of the universe was also known as: the geocentric conception Copernicus's heliocentric theory was: based on the observations of several earlier astronomers and his own computations Copernicus was a native of: Poland The immediate reaction of the clerics to the theories of Copernicus was: immediate condemnation, especially by Protestant leaders like Luther who condemned the discovery as contrary to their notions of creation the ideas of Copernicus were: nearly as complicated as those of Ptolemy Following upon Copernicus’s heliocentric theories: Johannes Kepler used data to derive laws of planetary motion that confirmed Copernicus’s heliocentric theory but that showed the orbits were elliptical Tycho Brahe: Recorded astronomical data from the observatory he built with royal financial assistance at Uramiborg castle Kepler's laws of planetary motion: gained acceptance despite disproving the great Aristotle’s conviction that the motion of planets was steady and unchanging One of the dramatic findings of Galileo's observations was: That planets were not made of some perfect substance but had natural properties similar to the earth the first European to make systematic observations of the heavens by telescope was: Galileo The Catholic Roman Inquisition attacked Galileo for his scientific ideas with the encouragement of: elements within the church pledged to defend ancient Aristotelian ideas and Catholic orthodoxy Galileo's Dialogue on Two World Systems was really an attempt to: support Copernicus through a publication in Italian accessible to a wide audience What actions did the Catholic church pursue concerning Galileo and his ideas? ordered him to recant in a public trial Galileo's ideas on motion included: The principle of inertia Isaac Newton's scientific discoveries: although they were readily accepted in his own country, they were resisted on the continent In Newton's Principia, he demonstrated through his rules of reasoning that the universe was: a regulated machine operating according to universal laws Newton's universal law of gravitation proved that: through its mathematical proof it could explain all motion in the universe The Greco-Roman doctor who had the most influence on medieval medical thought was: Galen Paracelsus revolutionized the world of medicine in the 16th century by: advocating the chemical philosophy of medicine Who was not associated with major changes in the 16th and 17th century medical research: Galen On the Fabric of the Human Body was Andreas Vesalius’ masterpiece on anatomical structure William Harvey's On the Motion of the Heart and Blood refuted the ideas of: the liver as the beginning point of circulation of blood The role of women in the Scientific Revolution is illustrated by: Margaret Cavendish, who participated in her day’s scientific debates The overall effect of the Scientific Revolution on the argument about women was to: generate facts about differences between men and women that were used to prove male dominance Margaret Cavendish attacked the belief: that humans through science were masters of nature Benedict Spinoza believed that women: were "naturally" inferior to men The philosophy of Rene' Descartes: stressed a separation of mind and matter What was the name of Descartes' book that expounded his theories about the universe? Discourse on Method Descartes believed that the world could be understood by: the same principles inherent in mathematical thinking Francis Bacon was important to the Scientific Revolution for his emphasis on: empirical, experimental observation Showing the disputatious nature of European scientific thinker Francis Bacon rejected the ideas of Copernicus and Kepler and misunderstood Galileo Organized religions in the 17th century: rejected scientific discoveries that conflicted with the Christian view of the world Benedict Spinoza: was influenced by Descartes, but saw no separation between mind and matter For Spinoza, the failure to understand God led to: people using nature for their own self-interest In his work Pensees, Pascal attempted to convince rationalists that Christianity was valid by appealing to their reason and emotions For Blaise Pascal, humans could not understand infinity, only God could Concerning the first important scientific societies, the French Academy differed from the English Royal Society in the former’s -government support and control During the 17th century, royal and princely patronage of science: became an international phenomenon The first of the scientific societies appeared in what country? Italy The scientific societies of early modern Europe established the first: fund-raising events for medical research Science became an integral part of Western culture in the18th century because: It offered a new means to make profit and maintain social order The key figure of the Scientific Revolution who would inspire the search for natural laws in other fields, including society and economics, was: Newton Martin Luther, a _______ monk, criticized the sales of ________ in his famouse ____ theses. German - indulgences - 95 American and French used Englishman's John Locke's theories to demand _________ government, the rule of ____, and protection of ______. constitutional - law - rights Peering through his telescope, Galileo discovered __________ on the moon, Jupiter's four ______, and ____ spots. mountains & craters - moons - sun