Flashcards › Sociology 101: Chapter 5 Flashcards

People who have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is significant are called a(n) group _____ groups are essential to an individual's psychological well-being. Primary Secondary groups: have members who are likely to interact on the basis of specific roles Secondary groups tend to break down into: primary groups The tendency for organizations to be dominated by a small, self-perpetuating elite is called: the rion law of oligarchy Sociologists refer to grops that provide a sense of identification or belonging as: in-groups The groups we use as a standard to evaluate ourselves are: reference groups Clusters, or internal factions, within a large group are known as: cliques To study the phenomenon of social networks, Milgram co nducted an experiement called: the small world phenomenon All of the following are characteristics of bureaucracy, except: a hieracrchy with assignments flowing upward and accountability flowing downward Goal displacement occurs when: an organization has achieved its original goals and then adopts new goals The idea that bureaucracies, with their rules, regulations, and emphasis on results, would increasingly govern our lives is: the rationalization of society Which of the following is not one of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies? red tape and bureaucratic Karl Marx use the term _____ to refer to what happens in a bureaucracy when people begin to feel more like objects than people. alienation Group-wise, one of the common ways to reduce a feeling of alienation at work is to: form a primary group Weber's concept of "rationalization" closely resembles Ritzer's theory of McDonalization The hidden values of corporate culture to: the iron law of oligarchy Which of the following is an example of a maximum-security society? Great Britain The acknowledged leader of a group is known as: the instrumental leader Democratic leadership is generally considered most effective, but this finding might be flawed for all of the following reason EXCEPT: study subjects were unethically handled during studies Small groups: can be either primary or secondary groups Dyads: are the most intence or intimate of human groups When some group members align themselves against others in the group: a coalition forms Larger groups are more _____ than small groups. stable An expressive leader: increases harmony and minimizes conflict in a group All of the following are styles of leadership except: bureaucratic Which of the following has been found to be the best leadership style? democratic The Asch experiemtn demonstrates: the power of conformity The Milgram experiment demonstrates: how strongly people are influenced by authority Irving Janis uses the term _____ to refer to the collective tunnel that group members sometimes develop. groupthink A large introductory sociology class is an example of _____. an aggregate A _____ group is characterized by more anonymous, formal, and impersonal relationship secondary _____ refers to the tendency of formal organizations to be dominated by a small, self-perpetuating elite. The iron law oligarchy _____ proved a sens of identification or belonging while producing feelings of antagonisms towards ____. In-groups; out-groups _____ groups are the groups we use as standards to evaluate ourselves. Reference Links between people, their cliques, their family, their friends, are called _____. social networks A new type human community using the Internet to interact is referred to as the _____ community. electronic _____ occurs when new goals are adopted by an organization to replace previous goals that may have been fulfilled. Goal displacement The phrase _____ referes to the increasing influence of bureaucracies in society. the rationalization of society _____ is a feeling of powerlessness and normlessness; the experience of being cut off from the product of one's labor. Alienation Family, neighbors, teachers, and co-workers are all examples of a _____> reference group Sociologists use the term _____ to refer to how groups influence us and how we affect groups. group dynamics As a _____ grows larger, it becomes more stable, but its intensity, or intimacy, decreases. small group An individual who tries to keep the group moving toward its goals is a(n) _____. instrumental leaders _____ is a narrowing of thought by a group of people, which results in overconfidence and tunnel vision. Groupthink Chapter 5: Social Groups and Formal Organizations