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The______refers to the tendency for our personal happiness to be heavily influenced by others attainments. relative deprivation principle Resistance to stress is greatest during Phase 2 of the GAS Biofeedback is relaxing by being provided with information on changes in his heart rate 13.If a sea slug on repeated occasions receives an electric shock just after being squirted with water, its protective withdrawal response to a squirt of water grows stronger. This is associative learning 14.Pavlov’s experiments, the dog’s salivation triggered by the taste of food was an unconditioned response Extinction occurs when a conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with an unconditioned stimulus __________refers to the reappearance, after a rest pause, of an extinguished conditioned response Spontaneous recovery 17.After getting a slight burn from the spark of a flickering campfire, Julie became afraid of getting close to lighted gas stove. This illustrates generalization Study of respondent behavior is to _______as the study of operant behavior is to _______ Pavlov & Skinner 19.An event that increases frequency of the behavior that it follows is a reinforcer Positive reinforcers_____ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcers ______the rate of operant responding. increase& increase ________checking at the same hour out of office door to see what employees are doing Fixed interval 22.Introduction of a pleasant stimulus is to reinforcement as the withdrawal of a pleasant stimulus is to punishment. 23.Learned association between a response and a consequence is to _________as a learned association between 2 stimuli is to _____________ operant conditioning & classic conditioning 24.According to Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by external influences The use of physical punishment may lead to the suppression but not the forgetting of undesirable behavior, model aggression as a way of coping with problems and lead people to fear and avoid the punishing agent The process of encoding refers to getting information into memory Automatic processing occurs without conscious awareness 3.The conscious repetition of information in order to retain it in memory is rehearsal. Memory of facts is to ___________as memory of skills is to __________ explicit memory &implicit memory A flashbulb memory would typically be stored in the long-term memory 6.Ebbinghaus’s use of nonsense syllables to study memory let to the discovery that the remembered depends on the time spent learning. 7.The mental activities associated with memory, intelligence, language and learning as known as cognition An algorithm is methodical step-by-step procedure for solving problems Heuristics is simple thinking strategy that allows us to solve problems and make judgments efficiently The earliest stage of speech is babbling 11.Chomsky suggested that diverse human languages share a universal grammar 12.Characteristics of savant syndrome most directly suggest that intelligence is a diverse set of distinct abilities 13.A psychotherapist instructs Dane to relax, close his eyes and state aloud whatever thoughts come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd. The technique the therapist is using is known as free association 14.When 2 year old Matthew was told he would get no dessert until he finished the food on his plate. He threw his plate on the floor in a temper tantrum. Freud would have suggested that he could not resist the demands of his Id Ego is to id as reality principle is to pleasure principle 16.According to Freud, defense mechanisms are used by the ego to prevent threatening impulses from being consciously recognized The TAT is a projective test 18.Assessing an individual’s standing on the Big Five today has the advantage of providing a comprehensive personality description 19.Abraham Maslow suggested that those who fulfill their potential have satisfied the need for self actualization 20.Psychiatrists and psychologists label behavior as disordered when it is deviant, distressful and dysfunctional 21.According to the medical model, psychological disorders are sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and cured 22.Discovery that psychologically disordered behavior could result from syphilis infections facilitated credibility and acceptance of the medical model 24.Disruptions in conscious awareness and sense of identity are most characteristic of dissociative disorders 25.Major depressive disorder is most likely to be characterized by feelings of personal worthlessness psy 3