Made up of the President and his appointees (cabinet), this part of the government enforces the laws, signs/vetoes the laws, leads the army, creates treaties, and sets the agenda. Executive Branch Made up of the two chambers of Congress--this branch writes and passes bills. These bills can deal with interstate commerce, the budget, and anything "necessary and proper." Legislative Branch The Supreme Court and all Federal Courts below it. This part of the government has the power of judicial review. Judicial Branch This Supreme Court case made declared segregation legal in cases of interstate commerce. It wouldn't be until the 1950s that this ruling would be overturned. Plessy v. Ferguson Part of the Bill of Rights (came with the original Constitution) that reserves powers for the states. Used to prove the constitutionality of the Separate Car Act Tenth Amendment Change to the Constitution ending slavery. Plessy attempted to use this to make his case against the Separate Car Act Thirteenth Amendment Change to the Constitution that made anyone born in the United States a citizen Fourteenth Amendment The idea that the Supreme Court can review whether or not laws passed by states or the federal government are constitutional. Judicial Review The range of views about the role of government in society. Political Spectrum Side of the political spectrum with those that believe the government is useful in regulating the economy but not in dealing with moral or social issues. Left Someone who believes in most things on the left end of the political spectrum. Liberal The middle of the political spectrum. Center Someone who may have some beliefs to the left and some to the right but is mostly in the center. Moderate Side of the political spectrum with those that believe the government is very inefficient compared with the free market and that it should be reduced (except on some social issues like abortion and gay marriage). Right Someone who believes in most things on the right. Tends to want to keep government at its current size or smaller. Conservative Election or caucus that is the main method of choosing a party's candidate for president or Congress. Primary The citizens who empower representatives. Constituents The basic standard of living provided by the government to the poorest members of society. Welfare Center-left party that seeks to maintain or increase the size and effectiveness of government (for the most part). Democratic Party Center-right party that seeks to decrease or maintain the size of government for the most part. Republican Party Two-term Democratic president from 1992-1996 and from 1996-2000. Bill Clinton Hillary Clinton's attempt to reform health care so that everyone was covered by the system. It failed because it was seen as "too big" and "too complex." Popular opinion was strongly against the plan. Health Care Plan of 1993 The Republican campaign promises to constituents if they were elected in 1994. Some say it led to them winning both houses of Congress. Contract With America Bill Clinton's strategy (after the Congressional losses of 1994) to create his own ideology "above politics" by bringing together left and right wing beliefs. Triangulation A bill that is on the right side of the political spectrum creating more jails and allowing for more crimes to be punishable by death. Was it passed because of popular opinion, a Republican Congress, Bill Clinton, or all of the above? Crime Bill of 1996 The amount of money that the government spends that is more than it takes in. Budget Deficit The amount of government has that is more than it takes in. Bill Clinton created a surplus as president. Budget Surplus The process in which an official is accused of illegal activity. Republicans accused Bill Clinton of perjury (lying in court) but failed to get the 2/3rds vote in the Senate needed to convict. Impeachment Banned certain types of semiautomatic weapons. Crime Bill of 1994 Created national five-day waiting period for handgun purchases. Brady Bill Government throught the microcosms of Plessy v. Ferguson and the Clinton years.