alimentary canal Refers to the tubelike nature of the digestive system, starting at the mouth and continuing in varying diameters to the anus. anus End of the digestive system. appendix Inflammation of the vermiford appendix. cecum Has a wormlike appendage. colon Section of the large interstine extending from the cucum to the rectum. deglutition Swallowing. digestion The breakdown of food. esophagus Is a muscular, mucus-lined tube that extends from the throat to the stomach. gallbladder Small, muscular sac in which bile secreted by the liver is stored until needed by the body for digestion. ingestion The intake of food. large intestine The primary function of the large intestine is the ellimination of the waste products from the body. liver Organ that secrets bile; in formation of certain blood proteins and metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. masticaton The process of chewing. oral cavity Mouth pancreas Organ that secrets pancreatic juice into the duodenum and insulin and other substances into the bloodstream; has both endocrine and exocrine functions. pylorus The pylorus is at the distal end of the stomach, where the small intestine begins. peristalsis The wave like movement that propels food through the alimentary canal. rectum Where they are held until released from the body completely through the anal sphincter. sigmoid colon S-shaped section of the colon between the descending section and the rectum. small intestine The small intestine gets its name not because of its length but because of the diameter of its lumen. stomach Muscular saclike portion of the alimentary canal between the esophagus and small intestines; one of the main digestive organs where food is broken down for digestion. anastomosis New connection created between two structures that did not previously exist. appendicitis Inflammation of the vermiford appendix. barium enema Introduction of a barium sulfate suspension through the rectum for imaging of the lower digestive tract to detect obstruction, tumors, and other abnormalities. cholecystitis Inflammation of the gallbladder. colonoscopy Visual examination of the colon. colostomy Surgical redirection of the bowel to a stoma, an artificial opening, on the abdominal wall. diverticulosis Development if deverticula, pouches in the lining of the colon. diarrhea Abnormal discharge of watery, semisolid stools. dyspepsia Feeling of epigastric disconfort that occurs shortly after eating. dysphagia Difficulty with swallowing that may be due to an obstruction or a motor disorder. endoscopy General term for any internal visualization of the body using an instrument called an endoscope. esophageal atresia Esophagus that ends in a blind pouch and therefore lacks an opening into the stomach. gastroenteritis Inflammation and irritation of the stomach and intestines. gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Flowing back, or return, of the contents of the stomach to the esophagus caused by an inability of the lower esophagus sphincter to contranct normally. hematemesis Vomiting of blood. hematochezia Bright red, frank lower GI bleeding fron the rectum that may originate in the distal colon. hemoccult test Fecal specimen examination to detect hidden blood, which may indicate gastrointestinal bleeding. hemorrhoid Varicose vein in the lower rectum or anus. hepatitis Inflammatory disease of the liver that is caused by an increasing number of viruses, alcohol, and drugs. herniorrhaphy Hernia repair; suture of a hernia. ileus Obstruction. inguinal hernia Protrusion of a loop of intestine into the inguinal canal. melena Black, tarry stools caused by the presence of partially digested blood. periodontal disease Pathological condition of the tissues surrounding the teeth. polyp Bening growth that may occur in the intestines pyloric stenosis Condition in which the muscle between the stomach and the small intestine narrows or fails to open adequately to allow partially digested food into the duodenum. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM