Flashcards › Macromolecules (Organic Compounds)

Compounds that contain carbon Organic Compounds A name for large organic compounds Macromolecules Number of valence electrons in a carbon atom's outer energy level Four Type of bond that carbon atoms form with other carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, or nitrogen atoms Covalent Single units that are the building blocks of macromolecules Monomers Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, & Nucleic Acids Types of Organic Compounds Monomers are combined to form polymers by removing water Dehydration Synthesis Polymers are broken down when monomers are separated by adding water Hydrolysis Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides Types of Carbohydrates Elements found in carbohydrates Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen Elements found in Lipids Mostly carbon & hydrogen, very few oxygen Elements found in Proteins Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, & Nitrogen Elements found in Nucleic Acids Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, & Phosphorus Compounds that function in short term energy storage and providing structure Carbohydrates Compounds that function in long term energy storage, protection, water proofing, and as chemical messengers Lipids Compounds that function in storage, transport, regulation of hormones, muscle movement, structure, and as enzymes Proteins Compounds that function in storage of genetic information and instructing protein synthesis Nucleic Acids Proteins are formed when these units are bonded together by peptide bonds Amino Acids Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, & Quaternary Four levels of protein structure Protein structure consisting of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds in straight chains Primary Structure Protein structure consisting of 3-D folded arrangement of a primary structure held together by hydrogen bonds Secondary Structure Examples of Secondary Protein Structures Alpha Helix & Beta Pleated Sheet Protein structure consisting of secondary structures bent and folded into a more complex 3-D arrangement of linked polypeptides; also called a "subunit" Tertiary Structure Pentose Sugar, Nitrogenous Base, & Phosphate Group Parts of a Nucleotide Nucleic acids are composed of long chains of these Nucleotides Deoxyribonucleic Acid & Ribonucleic Acid Types of Nucleic Acids Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine DNA bases Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, Cytosine RNA bases Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids

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