Flashcards › Human Digestive System

What are the 2 functions of the digestive system? digestion and absorption What is the name of the wavelike contractions that move food through the digestive tract? peristalsis What is another name for the oral cavity? mouth What is another name for pharynx? throat What are the 3 parts of the small intestine, in order? duodenum, jejunum, ileum What are the 5 parts of the large intestine, in order? cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon What 2 body systems does the pharynx belong to? respiratory and digestive What are the 3 types of salivary glands? parotid, sublingual, submandibular What enzyme is produced by the salivary glands? salivary amylase What is the function of salivary amylase? breakdown carbohydrate (starch) to glucose What are the major organs of the digestive system, in order? oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum Where does mechanical digestion begin? oral cavity (teeth) Where does chemical digestion begin? oral cavity (salivary glands produce amylase) What are 2 functions of the tongue? contains taste buds, manipulates food What are 2 components of saliva and what do they do? mucus lubricates food, amylase breaks down starch to glucose How many different types of teeth are there? 4 (incisors, canines, premolars, molars) What is the hardest substance in the body? enamel of teeth What is the "foodpipe"? esophagus What moves food down the esophagus? peristalsis (wavelike muscular contractions) What structure prevents food from "going down the wrong pipe"? epiglottis What are the functions of the stomach? reservoir for food, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion What is the food mixture contained in the stomach called? chyme What is the ring of muscle at the top of the stomach called? cardiac sphincter What is the ring of muscle at the bottom of the stomach called? pyloric sphincter What substances are contained in gastric juice? hydrochloric acid and enzymes What prevents the stomach from digesting itself? mucus Which is longer, the small or large intestine? small What is the approximate length of the digestive system? 30 feet What is the approximate length of the small intestine? 20 feet What is the approximate length of the large intestine? 5 feet What are the functions of the small intestine? digestion and absorption What structures increase the surface area of the small intestine? villi and microvilli Which part of the small intestine functions in chemical digestion? duodenum What is the largest internal organ of the body? liver What is the function of the liver? produces bile What is the function of bile? breaks down (emulsifies) fat Where is bile produced? liver Where is bile stored and concentrated? gallbladder Can you live without your gallbladder? yes Can you live without your liver? no What organ does "hepatic" refer to? liver What is hepatitis? inflammation of the liver What are gallstones? solid clumps of material (usually cholesterol) that form in the gallbladder Which 2 body systems does the pancreas belong to? endocrine and digestive What are 2 components of pancreatic juice and what do they do? 1. enzymes breakdown fats, proteins and carbohydrates, and 2. sodium bicarbonate neutralizes hydrochloric acid from gastric juices What hormone is produced by the pancreas? insulin What is the main function of the large intestine? reabsorb water What is the first part of the large intestine? cecum Where is the appendix located? attached to the cecum What is inflammation of the appendix called? appendicitis What body system does the appendix belong to? immune system What are the accessory organs of the digestive system? teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas Which part of the digestive system contains bacteria that help break down undigested food and make vitamin K? large intestine What organ does "gastric" refer to? stomach What is the cause of most cases of ulcers? infection by H. pylori bacteria What disorder has one of the lowest cancer survival rates and is associated with smokeless tobacco use? oral cancer What disorder is characterized by chronic liver damage leading to scarring and loss of function? cirrhosis What disorder is characterized by solid clumps of cholesterol that may block the bile duct? gallstones What disorder is associated with a high fat and low fiber diet and is the 2nd leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S.? colon cancer Pinworms are the most common one of these in the U.S. intestinal parasite digestion