Fertile Crescent Large arc of rich fertile farmland that extends from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea silt mixture of rich soil and tiny rocks irrigation way of supplying water to an area of land canals human-made waterways surplus more than is needed division of labor type of arrangement in which each worker specializes in a particular task/job What does Mesopotamia mean? land between the rivers. What rivers did Mesopotamia develop on? developed on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. When and how were farming settlements established in Mesopotamia? established in Mesopotamia around 7000 BCE when people began planting crops along the Tigris and Euphrates. What made civilization possible in Mesopotamia? The flooding of the Tigris and Euphrates brought valuable silt to the Mesopotamia region. This silt made fertile soil ideal for farming. How did irrigation help farmers? helped farmers by bringing water to their fields. This allowed them to create more fertile farmland and grow more food. What effects did irrigation have on farming settlements? the effects on farming settlements: 1. farmers could produce more food 2. created a food surplus 3. fewer people needed to farm 4. led to division of labor 5. civilization begins to flourish Why did Mesopotamians create irrigation systems? created irrigation systems because they needed to control the flooding of the Tigris and Euphrates and insure a stable supply of water for their crops and livestock. Vocabulary and questions to study from Section 1 p.54-57.