Flashcards › psychology chapter 8 motivation and emotion

motivation the biological, emotional, cognitive, or social forces that activate and direct behavior instinct theories the view that certain human behaviors are innate and due to evolutionary programming drive theories the view that the behavior is motivated by the desire to reduce internal tension caused by unmet biological needs homeostasis the idea that the body monitors and maintains internal states, such as body temperature and energy supplies, at relatively constant libels in general, the tendency to reach or maintain equilibrium drive a need or internal motivational state that activates behavior to reduce the need and restore homeostasis incentive theory the view that behavior is motivated by the pull of external goals , such as rewards arousal theory the ciew that people are motivated to maintain a level of arousal that is optimal neither to high nor too low sensation theory the degree to which an individual is motivated to experience high levels of sensory and physical arousal associated with varied and novel activities humanic theories of motivation the view that empahsizes the importance of psychological and cognitive factors in motivation , especially tje notion that people are motivated to realize their personel potential gluecose simple sugar that provides energy and is primarily produced by the conversion of carbohydrates ans fats; commonly called blood sugar insulin hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood levels and signals the hypothalamus, regulating hunger and eating behavior basal metabolic rate (BMR) when the body is at rest, the rate at which it uses energy for vital functions, such as heart rate and resparations energy homeostasis the long-term matching food intake to energy expenditure ghrelin hormone manufactured primarily by the stomach that stimulates appetete and the secretion of growth hormone by the pituitary gland positive incentive value in eating behavior, the anticipated pleasure of consuming a particular food; in general, the expectation of pleasure or satisfaction in performing a particular behavior satiation in eating behavior, the feeling of fullness and diminished desire to eat that accompanies eating a meal; in general, the sensation of having an appetite or desire fully or excissively satisfied cholecystokinin (CCK) hormone secreted primarily my the small intestine that promotes satiation; also found in the brain sensory-specific satiety the reduced desire to continue to consume a particular food leptin hormone produced by fat cells that signals the hypothalamus, regulating hunger and eating behavior neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurotransmitter found in several brain areas, most notably the hypothalamus, that reduces metabolism, promoting positive energy balance and weight gain set-point theory theory that proposes that humans and other animals have a natural or optimal body weight, called the set-point wieght, that the body defends from becoming higher or lower by regulating feelings of hunger and body metabolism settling-point models of weight regulation general model of weight regulation suggesting that body weight settles, or stabilizes, around the point at which there is a balance between factors influencing energy intake and energy expenditure body mass index (BMI) a numerical scale indicating adult height in relation to weight ; calculated as (703 X weight in pounds)\(height in inches) obese condition characterized by excessive body fat and a body mass index equil to or greater than 30.0 cafeteria diet effect the tendency to eat more when a wide variety of palatable food is available leptin resistance a condition in which higher tham normal blood levels of the hormone leptin do not produce the expected psychological response weight recycling repeated cycles of dieting, weight loss, and weight regain, also called yo-yo dieting hierachy of needs Maslow's hierarchial division into levels that progress from basic physical needs to psychological needs to self-fulfullment needs self-actualization defined by Maslow as a person's full use and explosion on talents, capacities, and potentialities self-determinatio theories (SDT) Edward Deci and Richard Ryan's theory that optimal human functioning can occur only if the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, relatedness are satisfied eight chapter 8