Flashcards › Earth Science

the study of objects beyond Earth's atmospere astronomy the study of air that surrounds our planet meteorology the study of materials that make up Earth and the processes that form and chage the materials geology the study of earth's oceans oceanography what are the main earth systems lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere the rigid outer shell of the planet and inclues the crust and solid part of the layer below the crust, mantle lithosphere partially molten layer is located in the asthenosphere water in earth's ocean, lakes, glaciers, and rivers hydrosphere blanket of gas that surrounds the earth atmosphere includes all organisms on earth as well as the enviroment they live in biosphere suggested explanation for an observation hypothesis variable that is manipulated in the experiment independent variable factor that can change if the independent variable is changed dependent variable used in an experiment to show the results of an experiment are actually a result of the condition being tested control scientific studies and experiments use what system of units SI express the number as a multiplier and a power of ten scientific notation what are the 2 most common gases in the atmosphere nitrogen and oxygen science of mapmaking cartography circles earth halfway between the north and south poles equator distance in degrees north or south of the equator latitude distance in degrees east or west of the prime meridian longitude represents 0 degrees longitude prime meridian has parallel lines of latitude and longitude mercator projection made by projecting points and lines form a globe onto a cone conic projection made by projecting points and lines from a globe onto a piece of paper that touches the globe at a single point gnomonic projection show changes in earth's surface topography map connects points of equal elevation contour line naturally occurring, inorganic, solid with a specific chemical composition and a definite crystalline structure mineral a solid in which the atoms are arranged in repeating patterns crystal water flowing downslope along earh's surface runoff drainage basin watershed high land area that seperates one watershed from another divide material carried after it becomes dissolved in a stream's water solution particles that are small enough to be held up by the turbulence of a strean's moving water are carried in suspension bedrock that rolls against the ocean floor traction bounces against the ocean floor saltation bend or curve in a stream meander erosion and deposition along a meander point bar and cut bank stream actively resumes the process of downcutting toward its base level rejuvenation waterfall is located in what age of a stream young meander is located in what age of a stream mature and old oxbow is located in what age of a stream old the breaking down of rocks and other materials on earth's surface weathering what are the two types of weathering mechanical and chemical the physical breakup of rocks into smaller and smaller pieces, does not change the chemical makeup of the rocks mechanical weathering changes the chemical make up of the rocks chemical weathering what is the process by which water freezes and cracks the rocks ice wedging/ frost action when two objects rub against each other abrasion roots that split the rock as they grow root acids/ plant acids rusting of materials oxidation what is the top of the dune called crest three way wind moves particles saltation, creep, and suspension true or false: without gravity glaciers would not move downslope and streams would no flow true true or false: parent bedrock determines the kinds of minerals a soil will contain true true or false: after weathering takes place, mass movements may occur true Barrier islands are formed when sand is repeatedly picked up, moved and deposited by ocean currents There can be no stream erosion or glacial erosion without gravity when two cirques on opposite valleys meet, they form a arete a lanslide occurs on steep slopes in mountainous area called a rockslide the eurtophication of a lake leads to the formation of a bog potholes form in the stream bottom when the water dissolves the bedrock streams lengthen through upstream flooding a blocked off meander eventually becomes an oxbow lake what is the process where eroded materials are dropped in another location deposition what is a distinct layer, or zone with a soil profile horizon what is the removal and transportation of weathered material from one location to another erosion rocks that are shaped by windblown sediments are known as ventifacts lowering of land surface that results from the wind's removal of surface particles deflation what is the area below earth's surface that is completely saturated with water zone of saturation soil that has been moved to a location away from its parent bedrock transported soil the reaction of water with other substances hydrolosis soil located above its parent rock residual soil process by which outer layers of a rock are being stripped away exfoliation broad continent-sized mass of ice glacier deep depression carved out by an alpine glacier cirque meltwater flows and deposits where outwash plain an elongated landform produced when glaciers move over older moraines drumlin the ground that borders a stream and holds the water within the confines of the channel stream banks a triangular deposit that forms when a stream enters a large body of water delta an area periodicaly saturated with water wetland water spill over the sides of a streams back is called what flood top of the wave crest bottom of the wave trough area called between the waves wavelength 2 ways minerals form magma, solution true or false: color is the best way to identify minerals false true or false: streak is the best way to identify minerals true mohs scale measures what hardness of minerals true or false: some minerals have special properties true contains a useful substance that can be mined at a profit ore valuable minerals that are prized for their rarity and beauty gems 3 types of rocks igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary Earth Science