Flashcards › Criminology Chapter 3

NCVS estimates victimizations occur annually in the U.S. At what number? 23 million victimizations Adding together the cost of the justice system, legal costs, and treatment costs, the total monetary loss due to crime is about? How much is the system cost annually? 450 billion annually Adding together the cost of the justice system, legal costs, and treatment costs, the total monetary loss due to crime is about. How much is the cost per U.S. citizen? $ 1,800 per U.S. citizen Victims may suffer losses in earning and occupation attainment. Macmillan estimated an _____ loss in earning over the lifetime for American adolescent victims of violent crime. Individual costs? $ 82,000 on individual costs Victims may suffer additional victimization by the justice system and medial profession. This is referred to as? System abuse What are the long term stress by victims of crime? 1. Victims may suffer stress and anxiety after the incident (e.g. girls who were sexually and physicall abused as children are more likely to be suicidal as adulsts than those who were not abused. 2) Female victims tend to internalize and place the blame for their victimization on themselves, whereas males are more likely to externalize blame, expressing anger toward their attackers. Victims may suffer from what conditions after the incident? Stress and anxiety How female victims react after a crime? female victims tend to internalize and place the blame for their victimization on themselves. How males victims react after a crime? Males are more likely to externalize blame, expressing anger toward their attackers. does the victim's pain and suffering stop after the incident is over? The victim’s pain and suffering does not stop after the incident is over. For example, people who have been assaulted develop fears that their house will be burglarized. Altruistic fear many victims fear for the safety of others in their lives—children, spouses, and friends whose safety they value many victims fear for the safety of others in their lives—children, spouses, and friends whose safety they value altruistic fear Is it true that people who are crime victims more likley to commit crime themselves? Yes, There is growing evidence that people who are crime victims also seem more likely to commit crime themselves the phenomenon in which child victims later become adult criminals. For example, young male are more likely to engage in violent behavior, if they were the target of physical abuse or exposed to inter-adult violence. It is referred to as? Cycle of violence where, when, and how crime occurs Ecology neighborhood characteristics influence the chances of victimization. It is a concept that refers to? Ecology According to the nature of victimization, where is the safest place? Home What are the most liley site for victimization? an open, public area and commercial establishment is the most likely site for victimization According to NCVS, where is rape more likely to occur? Rape is most likely to occur in the home. what type of households have a lower victimization risk? Smaller households in less populated areas have a lower victimization risk. what percentage of Americans will be victim of personal theft at least once during their lifetime? 99% of Americans- will be victim of personal theft at least once during their lifetime. What are the victim characteristics? (5) 1. Gender 2. Age 3. Social Status 4. Marital status 5. Race According to victim characteristics, what gender is far more likely to be the victims of sexual assault? Women- are far more likely than men to be the victims of sexual assault. Are men immune from the crime of rape? Give me statistics No, NCVS: 20,000 men are raped or sexually assaulted each year. According to victim characteristics, what age group faces much greater victimization risk? . Young people face a much greater victimization risk than older persons. At what age does the victim risk decreases? after age 25- Victim risk diminishes rapidly What is the percentage of the people over age 65 make up? Make up 15% of the population People over age 65 account for what percertage of violent victimizations? account for only 1% of violent victimizations According to social status, what type of Americans are more likely victims of crime? the poorest Americans Why is it that the poorest americans are more likley victims of crime? Because they live in inner-city, crime prone areas. According to social status, who is the highest risk for personal theft crimes? The wealthy are at highest risk for personal theft crimes. According to marital status, divorced and never married compared to married or /widows/widowers are? (victimization) Divorced and never-married males and females are victimized by strangers more often than married or widows/widowers. ______, ______________, ____________ probably influences the association about divorced and never-married and females are victimized by strangers more often than married or widows/widowers? Age, Gender, and lifestyle According to race, which ethnicity/race is most likely to be victimized? African Americans are more likely than whites to be victims of violent crime African Americans are how often more likely to be aggravated assaulted compared to whites? Aggravated assault: two times African Americans are how often more likely to be robbed compared to whites? Robbery: three times; Where do minority people tend to live? Minority people tend to live in inner-city, crime-prone areas. Does prior victimization enhance or reduce the chances of future victimization? Individuals who have been crime victims have a significantly higher chance of future victimization than people who have not been victims. Prior victimization is a strong predictor of future victimization. Why? 1. Target Vulnerability 2. Target Gratifiability 3. Target antagonism There are three specific types of characteristics increase the potential for victimization. What are they? 1. Target Vulnerability 2. Target Gratifiability 3. Target antagonism The victim's physical weakness or psychological distress renders them incapble of resisting or deterring crime and makes them easy targets. Target Vulnerability - Factor that predicts repeat victimizations Some victims have some quality, possession, skill, or attribute that an offender wants to obtain, use, have access to, or manipulate. Having attractive possessions such as a leather coat may make one vulnerable to predatory crime. Target Gratifiability-Factor that predicts repeat victimizations Some characteristics increase risk because they arouse anger, jealousy, or destructive impuses in potential offenders. being gay or effeminate, for example, may bring on undeserved attacks in the street; being argumentative and alcoholic may provoke barrom assaults. Target Antagonism Tiny lady vs. strong lady Target vulnerability Diamond watch Target Gratifiability having attractive possessions target gratifiability personal characteristics Target antagonism ., being gay may bring on undeserved attacks in the street Target Antagonism Victims and their criminals (according to NCVS) What percentage of violent crime are committed by non-strangers? 40% of violent crimes are committed by non-strangers Victims and their Criminals (according to NCVS) Crimes tend to be _____? Crime tends to be intraracial what does it mean by crimes tend to be intraracial? African-American offenders victimize African Americans; Whites victimize Whites Victims and their Criminals (according to NCVS) What factor seem to be involved in violent incidents? Substance abuse was involved in about one-third of violent incidents. Who propounded the victims precipitation theory? Marvin Wolfgang, 1958 what does the victim precipation theory says? People cause their own victimization. What are the two parts of the victim precipitation theory? 1. active precipitation and 2. passive precipitation. what does active precipitation says? Victims act provocatively (e.g., “fighting words) What does passive precipitation says? Victim’s personal characteristic encourages the attacker what does the lifestyle theory says? Victimization risk is increased when people have a high-risk lifestyle 9e.g., staying late at night, remaining single and going out to public places increases victimization risk Under the lifestyle theory, what does Equivalent Group Hypothesis mentions? Crime victims also involved significant amounts of criminal behavior. Thus, criminal s and victims are one and the same Under the lifestyle theory, what does the Proximity Hypothesis says? Victims do not encourage crime; they simply are “in the wrong place at the wrong time.” Under the lifestyle theory, what does Deviant Place Hypothesis says? Victims have little influence over the criminal act, they simply live in deviant places where have high risks to crime The greater the exposure to dangerous places, the more likely people will become victims of crime and violence. Deviant Place Theory who propounded the Routine Active Theory? Lawrence cohen, and Marcus Felson What does the routine active theory says? The volume and distribution of predatory crime (violent crimes against a person and crimes in which an offender attempts to steal an object directly) are closely related to the interaction of three variables that reflect the routine activities of the typical American lifestyle the pressence of these components increases the likelihood that a predatory crime will take place? Routine Active Theory: mentions three things: 1. The availability of suitable targets 2. The absence of capable guardians, 3. ) The presence of motivated offenders Under the Routine Active Theory, What does the suitable targets mean? , such as homes containing easily suitable goods Under the Routine Active Theory, What does the capable guardians mean? such as police, homeowners, neighbors, friends, and relatives. Under the Routine Active Theory, What does the motivated offenders mean? a large number of unemployed teenagers What is the criticism that routine theory holds? Victim behavior cannot explain the beginning of criminality. What is the government response to the care of the victim?1 1. ) Regan’s Task Force on Victims of Crime 2.) In 1984 the Comprehensive Crime Act and the Victims of Crime Act Regan’s Task Force on Victims of Crime? one of the most significant recommendations—to let the victim to be present and heard at every critical stage In 1984 the Comprehensive Crime Act and the Victims of Crime Act ? Act authorized federal funding for state victim compensation and assistance projects. what are the four different victim service programs? (1) Victim Compensation (2) Court Services (3) Public Education (4) Victim-Offender Reconciliation Program (VORP) (1) Victim Compensation ? for medical bills, loss of wages, loss of future earnings, and counseling (2) Court Services: ? To help victims deal with the criminal justice system (3) Public Education:? For example, school-based programs present information on spousal and dating abuse followed by discussions of how to reduce violent incidents (4) Victim-Offender Reconciliation Program (VORP) ? uses mediators to facilitate face-to-face meetings between victims and offenders What are the victim's right? there are two mentioned on the notes (1) Just as the defendant has the right to counsel and a fair trial, society is also obliged to ensure basic rights for law-abiding citizens. (2) In Payne v. Tennessee (1991), the Supreme Court granted victims the right to tell a jury of the emotional impact of a murder on surviving family member. In Payne v. Tennessee (1991), the Supreme court ruled? granted victims the right to tell a jury of the emotional impact of a murder on surviving family member. criminology involves the study? the process of law making, law breaking, and law enforcing Deviant behaviors? depart from social norms Which criminological perspective maintains that people have a free will to choose criminal or lawful solutions to meet their needs? Classical School Lambroso believed that criminals were biolgocal throwbacks to primitive beasts. He referred to this condition as what? atavistic anomalies Selling narcots so that I could purchase a lexus is an example of what category of crime. an instrumental crime The more crime in an area, the greater the amount of fear, and the more likely residents will be to engage in self-protective measures. true or false. true Target Hardening making one’s home and business crime-proof. Fighting Back People like to arm themselves when they perceive that violent crime rates are high in their area (e.g., Residents of an East End neighborhood in Houston patrolled for stopping gang activities. HPD warned that they will not tolerate vigilante justice and will treat lawbreakers the same, regardless of which side they are on (see Houston Chronicle 1A, December 3, 2002). fighting back Victims of attempted robbery who fought back were less likely to experience completed crimes than passive victims; however, they were more likely to be injured during the attack. Community Organization --- communities organize on their neighborhood level agains crime. Citizens have been working independtly and in cooperation with local police agecines in neighborhood patrol and block watch programs. Block watches and neighborhood patrols seem more successful when they are part of a general pupose or multi-ssue community groups rather than when they focus directly on crime problems. Crime Watch communitiy organization crime watch The scientific study of victims’ role in the crime process. victimology Criminologists who focus their attention on crime victims victimologists

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