This is defined as the process by which a stimulated receptor (such as the eyes and ears) creates a pattern of neural messages that represent the stimulus in the brain, giving rise to our initial experience of the stimulus Sensation This is defined as a mental process that elaborates and assigns meaning to the incoming sensory patterns Perception These, such as eyes and ears, covert incoming stimulus information into electrochemical signals - neural activity - into activity that the brain understands Sensory Receptors This is the sensory process that coverts the information carried by a physical stimulus such as light or sound waves into the form of neural messages Transduction Information-carrying signals travel from the resptor cells along a _____________ _______________ - usually by way of the thalamus - and on to the specialized sensory processing areas of the brain sensory pathway _______________ : Chaning Stimulation to Sensation Transduction __________ : The boudaries of Sensation Thresholds The minimum amount of stimulation necessary for a stimulus to be detected is called _____ ____________. absolute threshold A person's absolute threshold ______ continuously with our mental alertness and physical condition varies The _________ ______________ (___ ___ __) is the smallest physical difference between two stimuli that a person can detect 50% of the time difference threshold (JND) The JND is always ______ when the stimulus intensity is high and _______ when the stimulus intensity is low Large; Small This law is the name given to the idea that the JND is proportional to the intensity of the stimulus Weber's Law According to this theory, sensation depends upon the characteristics of the stimulus, the background stimulus and the detector Signal Detection Theory In the __________ ___________ ____________ the ability to detect stimuli depends upon several factors; amound them the presence of competing stimuli, the physical condition of the brain, whether it has been aroused Signal Detection Theory In this theory, sensation is a probability that the signal will be detected and processed accurately Signal Detection Theory Sensation is influenced by __________ change Our ________ are change detectors sensors __________ ___________ is the diminishing responsiveness of sensory systems to prolonged stimulation Sensory Adaptation The brain senses the world indirectly because the sense organs convert stimulation into the language of the nervous system: _________ __________ neural messages CHAPTER 3 Sensation and Perception How does stimulation become sensation?