Flashcards › Cardiovascular system

vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart arteries vessels that carry deoxygenated blood to the heart veins trace a drop of blood thru the body/heart IVC/SVC, RA, tricuspid, RV,pulm valve, pulm art, lungs, pulm vein, LA, mitral/bicuspid, LV, aortic valve, aorta, body/coronary arteries only artery that carries unoxygenated blood pulmonary artery only vein that carries oxygenated blood pulmonary vein tachycardia fast heartbeat (faster than 100 bpm in adults) bradycardia slow heartbeat (slower than 60 bpm in adults) systole maximum amount of pressure on the arterial walls diastole relaxation/least amount of pressure on the arterial walls irregular heartbeat dysrhythma/arrhythmia S/S of cardiovascular disease dyspnea, tachypnea, palpitations, syncope, cyanosis, edema, fatigue CAD coronary artery disease S/S of CAD initially asymptomatic with the first signs being angina causes of CAD atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, genetic predisposition, those older than 40, men, postmenopausal women, and caucasions, Hx of smoking, HTN, diabetes, obesity, Hx of elevated HDL(bad cholesterol) diagnosis of CAD EKG, stress tests, echocardiograms, cardiac catheterization, and angiograms treatment of CAD vasodilators, angioplasty, antihyperlipidemic drugs (cholesterol drugs), anticoagulants, and beta blockers, and CABG CABG coronary artery bypass graft angina pectoris chest pain after exertion usually relieved by nitro or rest MI myocardial infarction S/S of MI severe crushing chest pain not relieved by rest or nitro, nausea and vomiting, radiating pain to left or right arm and into the jaw, dyspnea, and anxiety Treatment for MI baby aspirin, nitro, oxygen, anticoagulants, and angioplasty diagnosis for MI EKG. blood tests, and symptoms Cardiac Arrest unexpected cessation of cardiac activity Treatment of Cardiac arrest CPR, defrillation, and medications hypertension (HTN) high blood pressure above 140/90 causes of HTN age, hereditary, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, poor dietary habits, type A personality, stress, arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis S/S of HTN headaches, epistaxis (nosebleeds), lightheadedness, angioplasty a catheter is threaded thru the femoral artery and fed up to an area of blockage in the heart where a balloon or stent is placed to open the occluded artery arteriosclerosis hardening of the arteries atherosclerosis fatty deposits within the walls of the arteries CHF (congestive heart failure) failure of the heart to work as pump (R sided failure leads to edema in the lower extremities, and L sided failure leads to pulmonary edema) S/S of CHF dyspnea, edema, neck vein distension, edema in the lower extermities, anxiety treatment for CHF digoxin, Lasix (diuretics) Pulmonary edema fluid shift into the extravascular spaces of the lungs Pericarditis acute or chronic inflammation of the pericardium (the sac enclosing and protecting the heart) S/S of Pericarditis fever, malaise, chest pain the increases with inspiration, dyspnea treatment for pericarditis antibiotics, NSAID's, analgesics Rheumatic fever systemic inflammatory and autoimmune disease involving the joints and cardiac tissue S/S of Rheumatic Fever it follows a strep throat infection: joint pain, edema inflammation, cardiac murmurs, weakness and malaise treatment for Rheumatic Fever antibiotics, antipyretics, and antiinflammatory agents cardiomyopathy noninflammatory disease of the cardiac muscle resulting in enlargement of the myocardium and vertricular dysfunction shock collapse of the cardiovascular system, including vasodilation and fluid shift accompanied by inefficient cardiac output S/S of shock poor perfusion of tissues and organs, pale, cold, clammy skin, weak rapid pulse, thirst, anxious, profuse sweating varicose veins swollen, tortuous and knotted veins that usually occur in the lowe legs Reed-Sternberg Cells a large cell with 2 or more mirror-image nuclei, each with a single nucleolus as seen in Hodgkin's disease cardiac tamponade compression of the heart muscle and restriction of heart movement caused by blood or fluid trapped in the pareicardial sac S/S of cardiac tamponade sudden dyspnea, rapidly falling B/P , weak pulse, and becomes cyanotic above the nipple line Aortic aneurysm weakening or ballooning of a blood vessel in this case the aorta risks of rupture increase and can be fatal S/S of aortic aneurysm dependent on the size and location of the aneurysm (pulsating mass in the abdomen, abdominal or back pain, shock Raynaud disease a condition when vasospasms cause pain, numbenss, and sometimes discolored are in the fingers hands or feet treatment for Raynaud's warmth to the affected areas, stop smoking, avoid exposure to cold sickle cell anemia a chronic hereditary form of anemia wher the RBC is sickle shaped instead of round, this casues the cells to clump causing decreased circulation to an area and increased pain Leukemia malignant meoplasms of the blood forming organs there are many different forms, ALL, CLL, AML, CML hemophilia hereditary bleeding disorder tha results from a deficiency of clotting factors anemia a condition of decreased RBC or hemoglobin, reducing the bodies ability to carry oxygen lymphedema abnormal collection of lymph, usually in the extremities, this isn't a painful condition althought the extremeity becomes swollen and distended hodgkin's disease a cancer of the body's lymphatic systme inwhich the involved cells grow and interfere with normal functioning by collecting in masses in various parts of hte body S/S of hodgkin's disease enalrgement of lymph nodes in the neck or mediastinum, fatigue, alcohol-induced pain, and itching, night sweats, fever, and weight loss Buerger's disease inflammation of the peripheral arteries and veins of the extremities with clot formation transfusion incompatibility reaction this results when the blood or blood product transfused has antibodies to the recipient's RBCs or the recipient has antibodies to the donor's RBC Med Term II cardiovascular diseases