Flashcards › AP US History Unit 1 (Ch. 1-5)

What was the signifigance of corn in the Americas during early human history? It turned nomadic groups into agricultural villages; it sustained larger populations; it made diets rich which led to high population densities in farming communities What was the Iroguois Confederacy? It developed political and organizational skills to sustain robust military alliances between tribes. What were the Crusades? European campaigns to take the Holy land from Muslims; 11th to 14th centuries What was going on in Africa in the 1400s? The Portuguese set up trading posts along the coast to trade gold and slaves; Islands off the west coast of Africa hosted plantations established by the Portuguese and the Spanish; Barthlomew Dias rounded the tip in 1488; When was the printing press invented? 1450 Why was the Treaty of Tordesillas important? It split the world in two. Half was Spain's and half was Portugual's. Spain received most of the New World. Juan Ponce de Leon Explored Florida Vasco de Gama Discovered an ocean route from Portugal to the east Ferdinand Magellan First to circumnavigate the world Marco Polo Returned from the Orient in 1265 with stories of adventrue and riches. He inspired people to start exploring the world. Francisco Pizarro Conquered the Incan Empire and claimed most of South America for Spain John Rolfe One of the early English settlers in the New World. He cultivated tobacco and introduced it was an economic basis for the community of Jamestown. What was the encomienda system? The government gave indians to certain colonists to try to Christianize them. It was the basis of slavery in the New World. What was Pope's Rebellion? Pueblo rebels destroyed every Catholic church in the providence of New Mexico and killed hundreds of settlers and priests. What impact did the Europeans have on the indians? The indians were wiped out by disease brought by the Europeans. The indians were also slaughtered by the Spanish, specifically the Incas and the Aztecs. Many European priests attempted to convert the indians into Christians. How did religion affect the Native Americans? European priests tried to convert some indians into Christians. The encomienda system developed, which is when an indian is given to a particular colonists by the government with hopes of Christianizing them. What was the beginning of slavery in the New World? The encomienda system, which was when a colonist was given an indian is hopes of Christainizing them, was the beginning of slavery because it gave people a sense of ownership over other beings. It was the beginning of the idea that one man is better than another. Why was the English Protestant Reformation of the 1530s so significant? King Henry the Eighth broke with the Roman Catholic Church, which angered most Catholics. The Catholics and the Protestants battled for decades. When the Protestant Queen Elizabeth descended the throne, most of England was Protestant. However, the Catholics still persecuted the Protestants. The persecution led to the fleeing of a small group of Protestants called Seperatists. The Seperatists were, essentially, the Pilgrims that fled to the New World in search of religious freedom. Francis Drake "Plundered around the planet", returned with Spanish gold, and was knighted by Queen Elizabeth What happened at the Roanoke colony? Sir Walter Raleigh organized a group of colonists to settle on Roanoke Island in 1585. However, after Sir Walter Raleigh departed for England, the Roanoke community mysteriously vanished. What is the House of Burgesses? It was an assembly of settlers and the first of many mini parliaments of self-government. Why wasn't Jamestown successful? The Jamestown settlement wasn't successful because 40 colonists died on the voyage and even more settlers died on land from disease, malnutrition, and starvation. The settlers were unaccustomed to fending for themselves. They weren't strategetic in living because the planted tobacco before food. Who was John Smith? John Smith took over Jamestown and saved it from collapse in 1608. However, people still died, people still starved, and people still planted tobacco before food. What did Lord de la War do for Jamestown? Lord de la War came to Jamestown with a military "iron-fist" and undertook military action against the indians. He used "Irish-tactics" in which he burned and raided indian villages. It led to the first Anglo-Powhatan War. First Anglo-Powhatan War In 1614, a peace treaty was established with the marriage of Pocahontas to John Smith. What did the defeat of the Spanish Armada do for England? It gave the English the rule of the seas. What were the three D's that led to the defeat of the Indians? Disease, disorganization, disposibility What happened during the second Anglo-Powhatan War of 1644? The Indians were defeated and a peace treaty was signed in 1646 Why was Maryland founded? For profits and Catholic refuge What type of labor was used in Maryland? White indentured servants What are indentured servants? Penniless people who bound themselves for a number of years to a master for free passage. After a set number of years are over the indentured servants are entitled to their own land. What was the Toleration Act of 1649? It was toleration of all religions with the exception of those who denied Christ. Those who denied Christ were put to death. Where was the Toleration Act put in place? Maryland What were the slave codes? They stated a slave's legal status. Mostly the slaves did not have much of a legal status. What were the Barbados Slave Codes and why were they important? The Barbados Slave Codes gave no rights to slaves. They were important because many of the Southern colonies adopted the codes. What was the motivation for founding Georgia? It was a haven for debtors and a buffer against the Spanish who had settled Florida. Who founded Georgia? James Oglethorpe How did Delaware come into the hands of the English? The Swedes had ceded to the Dutch and the Dutch had ceded to the English. Who founded Pennsylvania? William Penn What was the motivation for founding Pennsylvania? It was a haven for the Quakers. What company funded the founding of Virginia? The Virginia Company What was Massachusetts orginally? A joint stock company. What was the motivation for founding the Plymouth Colony? Separatists refuge What was the motivation for founding Salem? Religious freedom What was the motivation for founding the Massachusetts Bay Colony? Puritan refuge Who founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony? John Winthrop Where did the Separatists flee to and why? They fleed to Holland to escape religious persecution by the Catholics. What was the Mayflower Compact? It was a simple agreement to form a crude government and to submit to the will of the majority and regulations agreed upon. It was the first example of self-government in America. Who was William Bradford? He was the leader of the Pilgrims and he was elected 30 times for governor. What were the Navigation Laws? They prevented America from trading with countries other than England. The laws increased smuggling which was the first major defiance of the King. What was King Philips War? The Indians had had enough of the bad treatment they received from the colonists and attacked them. The whites annihilated the Indians and stuck King Philips head on a stick. Who was John Cotton? He enforced religious rules in Massachusetts Bay Colony. What was the Massachusetts Bay Colony? It was formed by non-separatist Puritans in fear of their faith. It was a group of fishing villages and settlements north of Plymouth. What was the Bible Commonwealth? Religious leaders had great influences in the Massachusetts Bible Commonwealth which meant the Church had control. Who was Anne Hutchinson? She was a Quaker who defied Puritan authority. She claimed that Puritan beliefs to be untrue. She was brought to trial in 1638 and was banished. She went to Rhode Island then to New York where all but one of her family members were killed by Indians. Who was Roger Williams? He was a Salem minister who was banished for having radical ideas and encouraging fellow clergymen to make a clean break from England's corrupt church. He was aided by the Indians in his escape to Rhode Island where he built a Baptist Church in Providence. He allowed complete freedom of religion, even for Jews and Catholics. What was the Great Migration of the 1630's? It was the movement of 70,000 refugees, of which 11,000 went to Massachusetts and 48,000 went to the West Indies. Who was John Winthrop? He was Mass Bay Colony's first Governor/Founder. He thought he had a calling from God to lead a new religious experiment. He served for 19 years and helped Mass prosper with fur trade, fishing and shipbuilding. What was the Protestant Ethic? It was serious commitment to work and engagement in worldly pursuits. Who lived in Rhode Island? It was home to people who were not welcome in other colonies. It was called "the sewer." When was Hartford, Conn. founded and by whom? 1635; Thomas Hooker who led a group of Boston Puritans When was Maine founded? 1623 What industries helped New Hampshire grow? Fishing and trade What was the New England Confederation? It was a union of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Plymouth Colony, New Haven and Connecticut. The Confederation took on the defense against foes or potential foes, such as the indians, the French, or the Dutch. The Confederation also took on intercolonial problems. Each member from each colony had two votes. What was the Dominion of New England? It was administed from London and help bolster colonial defense. Who was Edmund Andros? He was the head of the New Dominion. He curbed town meetings, laid heavy restrictions on courts, presses, and schools, revoked land titles, taxed people without consent, and enforced the Navigation Laws. What resulted from the Glorious Revolution in England? The Dominion of New England collapsed and Edmund Andros was shipped back to England. How did the Dutch colonize North America? Henry Hudson explored the Hudson River area which was where the Dutch set up New Netherland. They bought Manhattan Island and named it New Amsterdam. The indians slaughtered the Dutch and, eventually, the Dutch had to surrender their land to the English. Who was William Penn? He founded Pennsylvania in 1681. He bought land from the indians witch which he had a friendly relationship with. He did not restrict immigrants and Pennsylvania eventually became a mix of ethnic groups. He disliked black slavery and created a colony of businesspeople who soon became wealthy. He also had churches that did not tax the colonists. Pennsylvania became a place of ecomic opportunity, civil liberty, and religious freedom. What was the impact of the Mayflower Compact on the colonies? It created a sense of self-government. It helped people make their own decisions about how to run a town, or a colony. Trace the development of self-government in the colonies. Mayflower Compact, House of Burgesses, town meetings, How did relgions affect the new colonies? Religion was really strict in the New England colonies. Most colonies were formed by different religious groups. There wasn't much religious toleration in the New England colonies. However, the southern colonies were founded for profit and there was more of a mix of religious groups. What was the tobacco economy in the Chesapeake region like? Tobacco was planted before food staples; Farmers were always searching for more land which provoked indian attacks; There was a surplus of tobacco and the prices fell; Farmers responded by planting more tobacco; They then needed more workers but indians died to quickly and blacks were too expensive; What was the "headright system" and why did people use it? It was a system in which whoever paid for the passage of a laborer recieved 50 acres of land. Some farmers came to own huge quantities of land. The system encouraged the importation of indentured servants. What was Bacon's Rebellion? Kevin Bacon led a group of Virginian ex-indendtured servants who were frustrated by broken promises of acquiring land. They resented Gov. William Berkley's friendly policies toward the indians and when Berkley refused to retaliate against the indians who launched attacks against the colonists, Bacon's men fell upon the indians, chased Berkely from Jamestown, and torched the capital. Other frustrated freemen heard of the rebellion and started their own rampages. When Bacon died of disease, Gov. Berkley ended the uprisings and hung more then twenty men. What did Bacon's Rebellion lead to? It led to the importation of black slaves because land owners didn't want rebellious workers. Describe a slave's trip from Africa to America. A black person was captured and sold to white slave traders who took the slaves to the coast. The slaves were then tightly packed into slave ships that headed for the West Indies and America. What was the Middle Passage? The trip from Africa to the West Indies and America; The death rate was as high as 20%; What was life like for a slave in the deep south? The climate was hostile and hazardous and the labor on the rice and indigo plantations was life draining. What was life like for a slave in the Chesapeake region? Life was less tiring because tobacco was less physically draining. The plantations were closer together so slaves could still communicate and see their friends and families. There were more female laborers so a family life was possible. What was southern society like? Great landowners; small farmers; landless whites; indentured servant; black slaves What was the New England family like in comparison to the Southern family? New England hosted cleaner water and cooler temperatures which slowed the spread of disease. The south was hot and humid and disease flourished. In New England, people enjoyed longer life spans (moving to New England from England added ten years to your life). In the south, as a result of disease, life spans were shorter and marriages were broken up by the death of a parent, so there were many single parents (moving to the south from England took ten years off of your life). In New England, women didn't have many rights while women in the south enjoyed the right to own land among other rights. In the New England colonies, divorce was rare. In the southern colonies, couples didn't live long enough to get divorced. New England women had a lot of babies. Southern women didn't have as many children because many people died young due to disease. In New England, grandparents were "invented." In the south, grandparents were non-existant because poeple didn't live long enough. New England had an equal ratio of men to women. The south had a ratio of six men for every one woman (one third of brides were already pregnant) What was life like in New England towns? New England had tight-knit societies (farms and villages). Most adults knew how to read and write. There were town meetings in which adult men met and voted about issues in the town. Towns were strategetically laid out with a meetinghouse, a church, and school surrounded by houses (many towns had village greens as well) Who were the Jeremiad? They were strict preachers who scolded sinners. What promoted the Jeremiad? Waning piety (true to religion) What was the Half-Way Covenant and how did it come about? It granted partial membership to people not yet converted. It widened the church society and it erased the lines betweent the "elect" and the people doomed to Hell. It was created because churches began to see a decrease in attendance. What were the Salem Witch Trials? A group of young girls in Salem claimed to have been bewitched by certain older women. A wild witch hunt ensued. People who were accused could accuse someone else to spare their life. It was, ultimatly, the poor accusing the rich of being witches. Nineteen people were hanged, one person was pressed to death, and two dogs were hung. The Witch Hunt was put to an end when the govenor's wife was accused. Compare the New England way of life to the Southern way of life. New England had less ethnic diversity while the south was home to many different ethnics. New England had rocky, mostly un-farmable, soil. The south had rich soil which was ideal for growing rice, indigo, sugar, and tobacco. The New England colonies had few farms and no slaves. The Southern colonies had huge plantations and small farms, both of which used black slaves as laborers. New England relied on a manufacturing and livestock economy. The south relied on an agricultural economy. What were the roles of early settlers (mainly in the middle and southern colonies)? Most colonists were farmers. The men cleared the land, fenced, planted, cropped, cut firewood, and butchered animals. The women wove, cooked, cleaned, and cared for and schooled the children. The children helped out around the house and picked and went to school in town when they could. What was the Scarlet Letter? When women commited adultery, they were whipped in public and had to wear a scarlet letter 'A' on their clothes. What was the first college in the New England colonies? Harvard 1636 (Mass.) What was the first college in the Southern/Middle colonies? William and Mary 1693 (VA) What was the soil like in New England? It was rocky and there was no real farming. New England mostly relied on commerce (shipbuilding and fishing) What was Leisler's Rebellion? In New York, aristocrats pushed down on the poor. The poor revolted against the rich. It was the first try at equality. Compare the treatment/lives of women in the New England and Southern colonies. In New England, women didn't have seperate property rights. In the south, women could have property rights because there was a good chance that their husbands would die before them. In New England, men thought they were better than women (religious factors such as Adam and Eve) and women were treated as the property of the men. In the south, women were treated more equally because there was a shortage of them. What led to slavery in the Americas? Many freed indentured servants revolted because they never recieved the land they were promised. Many plantation owners didn't want rebellious workers, so they turned to black slaves. Describe the population boom in the 1770s. In 1700, there were 300,000 colonists (20,000 blacks) with a 20:1 English to American ratio. In 1775, there were 2.5 million colonists (half a million blacks) with a 3:1 English to American ratio. The colonists doubled their numbers every 25 years. Why did South Carolina want to put restrictions on slave importantion? The number of black slaves eventually surpassed the number of white land owners and the whites were afraid the blacks would rebel. The English officials wanted to keep cheap labor in the colonies. beginning of America to the Revolution