Flashcards › Ancient Civ. (Part I)

artifact an object created and used by humans (pg.10) fossil a part or imprint of something that was once alive (pg.10) archaelogy the study of the past based on what people left behind (pg.7) anthropologist a scientist who studies human development and culture excavation An archaeological site that is being excavated or dug for studies. prehistory the time before there was writing or records (pg. 28) Iceman of the Alps (c. 3300 BC) Stone Age traveler who was found in the Alps in 1991. Scientists learned about the Stone Age from his clothing and tools. (pg. 35) Eras A distinct period of history with a particular feature or characteristic. (I.e. Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic). Paleolithic Era Old Stone Age (from 2 million years ago to around 8000 BCE) the first part of the Stone Age when people first used stone tools (pg. 31) Mesolithic Era Middle Stone Age (from 8000 BCE to 5000 BCE) the middle part of the Stone Age marked by the creation of smaller and more complex tools (pg. 38) Neolithic Era New Stone Age (from 5000 BCE to 3000 BCE) when people learned to make fire and tools such as saws and drills. (pg. 41) ancestors (descendants) a relative who lived in the past (pg. 28) Australopithecus Southern Ape, (4-5 million years ago) a group of extinct southern African apes having teeth stood upright and walked on two legs but had a smaller brain about 1/3 size of modern humans. Homo Habilis Handy Man, (2.4 million years ago) an extinct species of upright East African hominid who used early stone tools for chopping or scrapping and a brain about half the size of modern humans. Homo Erectus Upright Man, (2-1.5 million years ago) an extinct species of hominid that used early stone tools like the hand ax, learned to control fire and migrated out of Africa to Asia and Europe. Neanderthal Caveman, (80,000 and 50,000 years ago) an extinct species that resembles a caveman in appearance and behavior and is found in Europe and western/ central Asia. Cro-Magnon Homo Sapiens or Wise Man, (35,000 years ago) were the first early modern humans of the European Upper Paleolithic. Powerfully built heavy body and solid with a strong musculature, straight forehead, slight brow ridges, a tall forehead, a prominent chin and a brain capacity larger than modern humans. extinction To cause a specific living species or organism to stop living. cave paintings A prehistoric picture on the interior of a cave, often depicting animals. radiocarbon dating A method of determining the age of a item by measuring the amount of the carbon isotope remaining and determine the age range from 500 to 70,000 years. hunter gatherers people who hunt animals and gather wild plants, seeds, fruits, and nuts to survive (pg. 32, 33) migration to move to a new place (pg. 36) shortage less of something that is needed or not having enough. glaciers a large body of ice moving slowly down a slope or valley or spreading outward on a land surface. tundra A large, flat, treeless Arctic region of Europe, Asia, and North America where the subsoil is permanently frozen. land bridge The Bering Strait. A strip of land connecting two continents. In prehistoric times this allowed humans and animals to colonize new territories. (pg. 36) society a community of people who share a common culture (pg. 33) distribute to divide among a group of people (pg. 33) population the whole number of people living in a country or region. region an area with one or more features that make it different from surrounding areas (pg. 15) adaptation to adjust, change or modify an existing object and way or doing things, also to relate to the weather and the environment. division of labor an arrangement in which each worker specializes in a particular task or job. (pg. 58) Homo Sapiens Wise Man, (around 200,000 years ago and migrated around the world) same species as modern human who learned to create fire and use a wide variety of tools and developed language. (ex. flint knife) agriculture Farming. The science or practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of animals to provide food, wool, and other products. (pg. 42) domestication the process of changing plants or animals to make them more useful to humans. (pg. 41) specialization refers to a specific job or task and special pursuit, occupation, or product. civilization an advanced stage of social development and way of living (as in art, science and government) trade a business of buying, selling or exchanging items or services. economy the way a region uses resources to produce, sell and trade goods or services to meet the needs and wants of people. nomads A wanderer. One who moves from place to place with no permanent home. livestock Farm animals regarded as an asset for markets and trading. crops A cultivated plant that is grown as food or trade item. slash and burn cutting and burning of forests to create fields for agriculture or pasture for livestock, or other purposes. surplus more of something than is needed (pg. 58) self sufficiency not requiring any outside aid, support, or interaction, for survival. climate changes the change of weather or conditions in an area over a long period of time. (pg. 12) human modifications to make changes or alter anything to better serve the needs of humans. tools an object that has been modified to help a person accomplish a task. (pg. 30) clothing and shelter A way of covering the human body and a place giving humans temporary protection from bad weather or danger. hominid an early ancestor of humans (pg. 28) Chapter #1 and #2